- Modified duration, a formula commonly used in bond valuations, expresses the change in the value of a security due to a change in interest rates. Floating Interest Rate A floating interest rate refers to a variable interest rate that changes over the duration of the debt obligation. It is the opposite of a fixed rate
- The modified duration will be: MD = 4.52/(1.07) = 4.23. Interpretation. The modified duration of the bond is 4.23. This means that the price of the bond will increase to 4.23 with a 1% or 100 basis point increase in interest rates. Modified duration provides a good indication of a bond's sensitivity to a change in interest rates. The more your duration changes with a 1% increase in interest.
- concept of 'modified duration' was developed, which offered a more precise calculation of the change in bond prices given varying coupon payment schedules. In the mid-1980s, as interest rates began to drop, several investment banks developed the concept of 'option-adjusted duration' (or 'effective duration')
- The formula for the modified duration is the value of the Macaulay duration divided by 1, plus the yield to maturity, divided by the number of coupon periods per year. The modified duration..
- The
**Modified****Duration**is defined as follows: MDURATION is very similar to the**DURATION**function. The MDURATION function returns the annual**duration**of a security with periodic interest payments, but it calculates the**duration**if the yield were to increase 1%. The Macaulay**duration**is calculated for an assumed par value of $100. Both**duration**and**modified****duration**allow bonds of different. - Modified duration. This measures the responsiveness of the bond's price using Macaulay duration to account for the impact of changing interest rates on the bond price. It calculates how duration.

Le terme de modified duration dans la littérature anglo-saxonne désigne la formule suivante: La duration modifiée mesure la sensibilité d'un produit aux variations de taux d'intérêts

Macaulay duration has the diagrammatic interpretation shown in figure 1. Fig. 1: Macaulay duration . This represents the bond discussed in the example below - two year maturity with a coupon of 20% and continuously compounded yield of 3.9605%. The circles represent the present value of the payments, with the coupon payments getting smaller the further in the future they are, and the final. Interpretation of Macaulay Duration. Ask Question Asked 8 years, 2 months ago. Modified duration & Efficitive Duration make total sense to me as they are refer to a first order approximation of a change in yield on the price of a bond (eg, a 100 bp change in yield causes price to increase/decrease 110 bp). But Macaulay duration is usually quoted in years/time. How does one interpret this. La duration. Il y a une relation inverse entre les taux de marché et le prix des obligations : il donne un risque de taux par euro investi. Du fait de son lien étroit avec la duration on l'appelle aussi modified duration. Les traders utilisent aussi la BPV (Basis Point Value) qui donne la perte (le gain) en capital qui résulte de la hausse (la baisse) d'un point de base (0.01%) du. Duration is a measure of the average (cash-weighted) term-to-maturity of a bond. In plain-terms - think of it as an approximation of how long it will take to recoup your initial investment in the bond. There are two types of duration: Macaulay duration and modified duration.Macaulay duration is useful in immunization, where a portfolio of bonds is constructed to fund a known liability The modified duration is a measure of much the price of a bond and therefore the NAV of a debt mutual fund will change if interest rates change by 1%. Why do bond prices vary in the market? Simple demand and supply. If new bonds are available at higher interest rates, the demand for older bonds will decrease and they will have to be priced lower than their face value. A bond initially priced.

= (modified duration)(dy). We can use this equation to provide an interpretation of modified duration. Suppose that the yield on any bond changes by 100 basis points. Then, substituting 100 basis points (0.01) for dy into the above equation, we get: P dP = (modified duration)(0.01) = (modified duration)(%) mais en est bien différente (ici, D* est l'élasticité, en anglais Modified duration). Avec d = delta (la variation). Avec d = delta (la variation). Autrement dit, la duration est l'élasticité (au signe près) du prix de l'obligation au taux actuariel How to compute Macaulay and Modified duration. What they mean and why there are limitations in these interest rate risk measurement techniques Modified duration shows how bond prices move proportionally with small changes in yields. Specifically, modified duration estimates the percentage change in bond price with a change in yield.-D mod = the modified duration for the bond Di = yield change in basis points divided by 100 P = beginning price for the bond . Modified duration assumes that the price/yield relationship is a straight. In computing modified (or effective) duration for a portfolio of securities, we change the par interest rate (the yield to maturity) at every maturity by some small amount up and down (±Δy), and determine the percentage price change in the portfolio for 1% change in yield. In essence, we add ±Δy to the entire par curve. (Look here for a refresher on the par curve, and for a refresher on.

Effective duration is a calculation used to approximate the actual, modified duration of a callable bond. It takes into account that future interest rate changes will affect the expected cash flows for a callable bond. How Does Effective Duration Work? The formula for effective duration is: Effective Duration = (P-- P +) / [(2)*(P 0)*(Y + - Y-)] Where: P 0 = the bond 's initial price per $100. La duration moyenne effective est une mesure de la duration effective des obligations détenues en portefeuille et pondérée par le poids des actifs : elle est particulièrement utile pour avoir une idée de l'influence des mouvements de taux d'intérêt sur le portefeuille. Les obligations de maturités plus longues sont plus sensibles aux variations des taux que celles de maturités plus.

- $$\text{Modified duration} =\frac{1.8319}{1+0.12366}=1.6303$$ One of the advantages of this approach is that it can be an effective measure of interest rate risk. For instance, if the yields-to-maturity on the bonds in the portfolio increase by 100 bps, the estimated drop in the portfolio value is 1.6303%. However, the main disadvantage is that the approach assumes a parallel shift in the.
- Duration tells investors the length of time, in years, that it will take a bond's cash flows to repay the investor the price he or she paid for the bond. A b..
- Duration d'une obligation : définition et portée Définition. La duration d'une obligation correspond à la période à l'issue de laquelle sa rentabilité n'est pas affectée par les variations de taux d'intérêt.. Pour les investisseurs, la duration est une notion financière importante, car tout mouvement à la hausse ou à la baisse a un effet inverse sur leurs obligations
- Modified duration (MD) is commonly interpreted as a measure to estimate the change in a bond Price as a consequence of a change of one percentage point in the interest rate
- The modified duration is measured as the percent change in price per 1 percentage point change in yield. As pointed out above, there is a single yield-to-maturity for the bond and so little choice in defining the DV01 or duration. When we turn to valuation using a curve, however, there are many choices for the yields used to calculate the partial DV01s. The exact meaning of parts of the.

Modified Duration. Modified duration (ModDur) is an extension of Macaulay duration and helps to measure the sensitivity of a bond to changes in interest rates. Its calculation requires a simple adjustment to Macaulay duration. The calculation of the modified duration (ModDur) statistic of a bond requires a simple adjustment to Macaulay duration as such Interpretation Modified duration Interpretation Semiannual Period t Cash Flow from FIN 410 at SUNY Buffalo State Colleg ** Modified duration = MDURATION( 1/1/2008 , 12/31/2017 , 0**.06, 0.08,2) = 7.16. Note that modified duration is always slightly less than duration, since the modified duration is the duration divided by 1 plus the yield per payment period. Convexity adds a term to the modified duration, making it more precise, by accounting for the change in duration as the yield changes — hence, convexity. La duration d'un emprunt obligataire dépend des paramètres qui déterminent sa valorisation. Elle est d'autant plus réduite que : - Sa durée résiduelle est courte. - Que le taux du marché est élevé. - Que le coupon est élevé. Calcul de la sensibilité : Nous devons la formule de la sensibilité à Fischer, qui en 1966 met en relation la duration et la sensibilité d'une obligation.

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- The modified duration and effective duration are a better measures of interest rate risk. The interest rate risk is a function of how farther the cash flows of a bond are from zero. A zero-coupon bond has higher interest rate risk that a coupon-paying bond of the same maturity. The Macaulay's duration assesses the interest rate risk with reference to the duration of a zero-coupon bond. The.
- ute dictated by a prerecorded audio signal on a cassette deck 74 (Tab. 6, whereas.
- Duration. Duration measures either the average time to recover the initial investment (if discounted at the project's internal rate of return) of a project, or to recover the present value of the project if discounted at the cost of capital. Duration captures both the time value of money and the whole of the cash flows of a project. It is also a measure which can be used across projects to indicate when the bulk of the project value will be captured
- Duration Times Spread (DTS) is the market standard method for measuring the credit volatility of a corporate bond. It is calculated by simply multiplying two readily available bond characteristics: the spread-durations and the credit spread.The result is a single number that can be used to compare credit risk across a wide range of bonds

Interpretation of duration Dollar Price Change 13 Modified duration is a proxy from FIN 443 at Ohio University, Athen The naïve interpretation of a data model for events is the following one, where we have customers, date and orders. Each order has an order date and a ship date, and its duration lays between the two dates. Since the fact table contains two dates, you can setup the two relationships between Orders and Date, one of which need to be kept inactive due to the well-known limitation of Tabular. Duration is an approximate measure of a bond's price sensitivity to changes in interest rates. If a bond has a duration of 6 years, for example, its price will rise about 6% if its yield drops by. However, the pulse duration of a chirped pulse is underestimated if one simply uses the width of the autocorrelation signal (see Figure 5). An improved method called modified-spectrum autointerferometric correlation (MOSAIC) [15] is based on an interferometric autocorrelation, which is numerically post-processed such that the resulting trace makes it much easier to diagnose a chirp

Definition: As the term suggests, it is expressed in the form of number of years and measures a bond's sensitivity to change in interest rates. To be specific, it measures the change in market value of security due to 1% change in interest rates. Description: Usually, the higher the duration, the more is the volatility in the prices When Duration Goes Negative The use of derivatives allows some funds to turn a key measure of interest-rate sensitivity on its head Adam Zoll 26 June, 2013 | 3:10PM. Question.

formation subdivisions correlates with stage and duration of Alzheimer disease. Dementia 6: 205-10, 1995. Franssen EH, Reisberg B. Neurologic markers of the progression of Alzheimer's disease. Int Psychogeriatr 9 Suppl 1: 297-306, 1997. Reisberg B. Functional assessment staging (FAST). Psychopharmacol Bull 24: 653-9, 1988. Reisberg B, Ferris S, de Leon MJ, Torossian C, Kadiyala S, Zhu W. The units of Duration are time units (periods or years). Duration is the bond manager's tool for structuring a portfolio of bonds to have the desired sensitivity. Macaulay Duration •A balance point Consider a collection of 10 numbers as follows: 2, 1, 4, 2, 2, 3, 5, 3, 1, 2 So, there are two 1s, four 2s, two 3s, one 4, and one 5. A graph of frequency (how many) versus number looks like 0 1. The Macaulay duration of a bond is the weighted average maturity of cash flows, which acts as a measure of a bond's sensitivity to interest rate changes. Bonds with a higher duration will carry more risk, and hence have a greater volatility in prices, when compared to bonds with lower durations. There are many ways to calculate duration, and the Macaulay duration is the most common due to its.

If the modified duration of a bond is 2.3, what's the best interpretation? A. 1% change in yield means a $2.3 change in price. B. 1% change in yield means a 2.3% change in coupon rate. C. 1% change in yield means a 2.3% change in price. D. 1% change in yield means a $2.3 change in coupon rate Findings: The mean relative change in duration of morning stiffness of the joints from baseline to end of treatment was significantly higher with modified-release prednisone than with immediate-release prednisone (-22.7%vs -0.4%; difference=22.4% [95% CI .49-44.30]; p=0.045). Patients in the prednisone modified-release group achieved a mean reduction of 44.0 (SD 136.6) min compared with. For instance, a positive association between the duration of surgical H.C., J.W.C., and P.H. were involved in conception and design, interpretation of the data, revising article critically for intellectual content, and final approval. N.C.F. and B.S. were involved in analyses and interpretation of the data, drafting of the article, and final approval. C.G.C. and B.P-H.C. were involved in. Both the Macaulay and modified duration calculations depend on three basic assumptions: 1. The yield curve is flat 2. Any change in interest rates is a parallel yield curve shift 3. The cash flows do not change as interest rates change In practice, none of these assumptions is correct. A number &researchers have examined the effect of the first two assumptions in general. (See Klaffky, Ma, and.

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**modified**Dietz method is a measure of the ex post (i.e. historical) performance of an investment portfolio in the presence of external flows. (External flows are movements of value such as transfers of cash, securities or other instruments in or out of the portfolio, with no equal simultaneous movement of value in the opposite direction, and which are not income from the investments in the. - Interpretation: Non-inferiority of 3 months versus 6 months of adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with stage III colon cancer was not confirmed in terms of overall survival, but the absolute 0·4% difference in 5-year overall survival should be placed in clinical context. Overall survival results support the use of 3 months of adjuvant CAPOX for most patients with stage III colon cancer. This.
- (- Macaulay Duration x Change in Yield) = Approximate Change in Price -5.33 x 0.002 = -0.01066 or -1.066% In other words, if the bond had originally sold for $1,000 with a 5% yield it would now be selling for $1,000 x (1 - 0.01066) = $989.34 -- a discounted rate (Note that this is an approximation and is not as precise as a present value of a bond calculator)

This note includes a revised version of the recommendations on the interpretation and application of Article 5 (Permanent Establishment) of the OECD Model Tax Convention made by a Working Group composed of delegatesto Working Party 1 on Tax Conventions and Related Questions of the OECD Committee on Fiscal Affairs. The Working Group was set up to examine various issues related to the definition. La duration et la convexité sont des concepts pour mesurer la sensibilité d'un titre à revenus fixes aux variations des taux d'intérêt. Plusieurs stratégies de gestion de portefeuille de titres à revenus fixes sont basées sur ces concepts. 3 La sensibilité d'une obligation aux variations du taux d'intérêt dépend de sa maturité effective (et non de son échéance) qui est. amount of data received from even one single EEG recording presents a difficulty for interpretation. Individual's brain wave patterns are unique. In some cases, it is possible to distinguish persons only according to their typical brain activity. For example, subjects who regard themselves as rational types or as holistic/intuitive types may demonstrate certain higher activity in their. The modified barium swallow study (MBSS), a real-time fluoroscopic motion study, is the reference standard to assess swallowing physiology involving the oropharynx and esophagus. Here, we discuss technical considerations for the MBSS as it is performed in adults at The Johns Hopkins Hospital, with a focus on the importance of standardization of contrast, and collaboration between radiologists. How to do a water deprivation test: interpretation of results John Wass. Author affiliations. Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, UK. In order to test posterior pituitary function it is important to assess and replace corticotroph function before assessing posterior pituitary hormone production because ACTH deficiency leads to a reduced GFR and the inability to excrete a.

Modified Functional Reach Test: mean age = 70.6 (6.4), mean Hoehn and Yahr Disability Scale score = 3.0, disease duration 11.6 (4.3) years; n= 10 with PD and no history of falling, mean age = 70.8 (5.7), mean Hoehn and Yahr Disability Scale Score = 2.5, disease duration = 6.9(5.6) years; n = 10 with no neurological issues, mean age = 70.6 (6.2), Parkinson's Disease) Forward Functional. As the QRS duration in patients with a BBB varies from 120 ms to more than 200 ms, this formula runs the risk to overestimate or underestimate the modified QT interval in accordance to the QRS width. A more precise formula was developed and described by Rautaharju et al. and covers all kinds of ventricular conduction defects (LBBB, RBBB and intraventricular delay) and the complete heart-rate.

They provide the positive duration and positive convexity needed to offset the negative duration and negative convexity of mortgage servicing, says Shaiman. Hedging's trial by turmoil Likewise, negative duration dependence indicates that the longer a family occupied a state, the less likely they are to exit the state PHQ-9* Questionnaire for Depression Scoring and Interpretation Guide For physician use only Scoring: Count the number (#) of boxes checked in a column. Multiply that number by the value indicated below, then add the subtotal to produce a total score. The possible range is 0-27. Use the table below to interpret the PHQ-9 score Joint Angle: Modified Tardieu describes R1 and R2; R1 is the angle of muscle reaction, R2 is the full PROM. The angle of full ROM (R2) is taken at a very slow speed (V1). The angle of muscle reaction (R1) is defined as the angle in which a catch or clonus is found during a quick stretch (V3). R1 is then subtracted from R2 and this represents the dynamic tone component of the muscle (Boyd 1999. There was no crossover of treatment and similar numbers of patients in each group achieved the defined study strain with 173 (84%) of 205 participants with strain data in the standard group and 173 (86%) of 202 in the modified group reaching the target pressure and duration of strain. One participant allocated to the modified Valsalva manoeuvre was identified as being in atrial fibrillation.

The scoring criteria to earn a 0 to 3 for each of these items were also modified. Directions and suggested equipment were modified throughout the balance scale. Examples include the use of footprints or a taped line to facilitate task completion in BBS items 2, 6-10, 13, and 14. Equipment modification also included the use A modified Mediterranean diet score (mMDS) was developed for assessment of adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern from a previously administered life-style questionnaire that examined pre-existing dietary habits. Clinical data from fire department medical examinations were extracted and analyzed. Results Obese subjects had significantly lower mMDS, and they reported greater fast/take-out.

The videofluoroscopic swallowing study, also known as the Modified Barium Swallow (MBS), is a videofluoroscopic, radiographic test that differs from the traditional barium swallow procedures (e.g., pharyngoesophagram and upper gastrointestinal series) in both procedure and purpose. During the procedure, the patient is seated in an upright or semi-reclined position and given various quantities. 5. genetically modified organism or GMO means a genetically modified organism as defined in Article 2(2) of Directive 2001/18/EC, excluding organisms obtained through the techniques of genetic modification listed in Annex I B to Directive 2001/18/EC; 6. genetically modified food means food containing, consisting of or produced from GMOs A medical procedure mask with ear loops (A) was modified by tying the ear loops and tucking in the side pleats (B), attaching ear loops to a 3-dimensional-printed ear guard (C), fastening ear loops with a 23-mm claw-type hair clip placed behind the wearer's head (D), placing a ring of 3 ganged rubber bands over the mask and around the wearer's ears (E), and sliding a 10-inch.

Licensor grants You a worldwide, royalty-free, non-exclusive, sublicensable license, for the duration of the copyright, to do the following: a) to reproduce the Original Work in copies, either alone or as part of a collective work; b) to translate, adapt, alter, transform, modify, or arrange the Original Work, thereby creating derivative works (Derivative Works) based upon the Original Work. i was wondering to ask, is there any function in pyhton, that calculates macaulay or modified duration, when time to maturity is not a whole number, for example time to maturity is 1514 days, and you need precise answer for macaulay or modified duration. Maybe somoenecan share their code. Thank you. bond duration codes. Share. Improve this question. Follow asked Apr 14 '20 at 12:50. Tom Tom. MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) is the NLM controlled vocabulary thesaurus used for indexing articles for PubMed

Macaulay Duration, Modified Duration, and Effective Duration. Posted by Bill Campbell III, CFA on June 7, 2013. Posted in: Level I Fixed Income. In this article I'll cover three quantities that go by the name of duration: Macaulay duration Modified duration Effective duration I'll explain how each type of duration is calculated, the characteristics of each type of duration, the. Note: This document is intended to provide guidance on the appropriate use of testing for SARS-CoV-2 in light of additional testing capacity throughout the country and does not address decisions regarding payment for or insurance coverage of such testing Part of creating a project plan for any project you manage involves estimating how long each activity will take to complete. A duration estimate is your best sense of how long you need to actually perform an activity that's in the network diagram. The estimate isn't based on how long you want the activity to [ The North Star Ambulatory Assessment (NSAA) is a 17-item rating scale that is used to measure functional motor abilities in ambulant children with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). It is usually used to monitor the progression of the disease and treatment effects

Average duration of disease is also important, because the only way you can stop being a prevalent case is to be cured or to move out of the population or die. For example, about a decade ago the average duration of lung cancer was about six months. Therapy was ineffective and almost all lung cancer cases died. From the time of diagnosis, the average survival was only about six months. So, the. Guidelines on corrections to modified duration for debt instruments; Guidelines on criteria for the use of data inputs in the expected shortfall risk measure under the IMA; Guidelines on the Incremental Default and Migration Risk Charge (IRC) Guidelines on the treatment of CVA risk under SREP; Guidelines on the treatment of structural FX under 352(2) of the CRR ; Implementing Technical. Spot interest rate for maturity of X years refers to the yield to maturity on a zero-coupon bond with X years till maturity. They are used to (a) determine the no-arbitrage value of a bond, (b) determine the implied forward interest rates through the process called bootstrapping and (c) plot the yield curve

Modified SIS 2013 — ASRA 2015 Antiplatelet & Anticoagulant Guideline Rationale The authors initially developed a guideline table from recommendations of SIS 2013 [ 6 ]. Later, ASRA released guidelines in 2015 that categorized bleeding risk by procedure [8] Report material changes of the STEM OPT student's employment by submitting a modified Form I-983 to the DSO at the earliest available opportunity. Report the STEM OPT student's termination of employment or departure to the DSO within 5 business days. Implement a formal training program to augment the student's academic learning through practical experience. Provide an OPT opportunity. modified 27 mins ago Community ♦ 1. 0. votes. 0. answers. 7. views. Beta-Binomial parameter estimation. maximum-likelihood beta-distribution beta-binomial-distribution. modified 37 mins ago Vihari Piratla 261. 0. votes. 0. answers. 10. views. Analyzing animal behavioural data in R Studio (GLMM) and struggling to understand how to set up the model. r mixed-model model-selection glmm count.

It uses ten hanging snare drums that are excited by a piezo disc and a modified speaker cone controlled . by Max/MSP (surrounded by plants!). Issues of perception, approximation, interpretation, space and duration are explored During a long-duration flight, each pilot must be familiar with various flight information, such as the aircraft status, fault reservation information, alternate airports, airport weather, and air routes. Numerous and complex operations should also be performed exactly and at the appropriate times in each phase of a long-duration flight. In the.

Learn clinical ECG interpretation with the most comprehensive online book and course. Over 400 pages, video lectures, ECG quiz and more. Covers pathophysiology, electrophysiology, ECG criteria and clinical management. Perfect for students, physicians, PAs, paramedics, EMTs, researchers. Master the ECG today Insight by interpretation of unconscious conflict Mi 3Most rigorous: 3-5i / kl i5 times/week, lasts years, expensive Patient (analysand) lies on couch, analyst unseen to eliminate visual cues Must be stable, highly motivated, verbal, psychologically minded and be able to tolerate stress without becoming overly regressed, distraught, impulsive Psychoanalysis Analyst neutral Goal: structural. Audiometry Screening and Interpretation Speech-Language-Hearing Association has a recommended procedure for pure-tone threshold search tests known as the modified Hughson-Westlake method.18. and W. B. Langbein, for use in the Survey only, and later modified by C. H. Hardison. The flow-duration curve (fig. 1) is a cumulative frequency curve that shows the percent of time during which specified discharges were equaled or exceeded in a given period. For example, in the period 1939-48, the daily mean flow of Bowie Creek (fig. 1) was at leas4; 144 cubic feet per second during 90.

If a different paper speed is used, standard rate calculations will have to be modified appropriately (see other examples below) The standard paper speed is 25mm/sec: 1mm (small square) = 0.04 sec (40ms) 5mm (large square) = 0.2 sec (200ms) Estimate the rate At a paper speed of 25 mm/second. 1 SMALL square = 0.04 seconds; 5 SMALL squares = 1 LARGE square = 0.2 seconds; 5 LARGE squares = 1. The duration of the ventricular complex in an electrocardiogram is in the normal heart a function of the pulse rate, and may be determined by the formula: Systole = k √ cycle. The normal value for k is 0.37 for men and 0.40 for women. 1947 - Taran and Szilagyi related QT prolongation to acute rheumatic carditis in children. In doing so, they updated Bazett's original formula: Associated. A German U-boat torpedoed the British-owned steamship Lusitania, killing 1,195 people including 123 Americans, on May 7, 1915. The disaster set off a chain of events that led to the U.S. entering. The normal duration (interval) of the QRS complex is between 0.08 and 0.10 seconds — that is, 80 and 100 milliseconds. When the duration is between 0.10 and 0.12 seconds, it is intermediate or.

The modified CT severity index is an extension of the original CT severity index (CTSI) which was developed by Balthazar and colleagues in 1994 for distinguishing mild, moderate and severe forms of acute pancreatitis.. The original CT severity index has been followed internationally and has been very useful. However, it has a number of limitations: it has been found that complications like. Hence, we see the link between duration, modified duration, and elasticity. Now lets consider another example. We will look at bonds of different maturity. Bond A has a 10 year maturity with a 12% coupon and Bond B has a 5 year maturity with a 12% coupon. Suppose that the market discount rate is 13% Basic EKG interpretation. 1. Heart rate: The standard paper speed is 25 mm (5 large squares)/sec. This means that if the interval between two beats (R-R) is 5 large squares, the HR is 60 beat/min. The HR may be counted by simply dividing 300 by the number of the large squares between two heart beats (R-R)